Global Variables

Block

  • block.coinbase: address - current block miner’s address

  • block.difficulty: uint - current block difficulty

  • block.gaslimit: uint - current block gaslimit

  • block.number: uint - current block number

  • block.timestamp: uint - current block timestamp

Msg

  • msg.data: bytes - complete calldata

  • msg.gas: uint - remaining gas

  • msg.sender: address - sender of the message(current call)

  • msg.value: uint - number of wei sent with the message

Now

  • now: uint - current block timestamp(alias for block.timestamp)

Tx

  • tx.gasprice: uint - gas price of the transaction

  • tx.origin: address - sender of the transaction (full call chain)

Global Functions

  • assert(bool condition): abort execution and revert state changes if condition is false(use for internal error)

  • require(bool condition): abort execution and revert state changes if condition is false(use for malformed input or error in external component)

  • revert(): abort execution and revert state changes

  • block.blockhash(uint blockNumber) returns (bytes32): hash of the given block - only works for 256 most recent blocks

  • sha256(…) returns (bytes32): compute the SHA-256 hash of the (tightly packed) arguments

  • keccak256(…) returns (bytes32): compute the Ethereum-SHA-3(Keccak-256) hash of the (tightly packed) arguments

  • sha3(…) returns (bytes32): alias for keccak256

  • ecrecover(bytes32 hash, uint8 v, bytes32 r, bytes32 s) returns (address): recover address associated with the public key from elliptic curve signature

  • addmod(uint x, uint y, uint k) returns (uint): compute (x + y) % k where the addition is performed with arbitrary precision and does not wrap around at 2 ** 256

  • mulmod(uint x, uint y, uint k) returns (uint): compute (x * y) % k where the addition is performed with arbitrary precision and does not wrap around 2 ** 256

  • selfdestruct(address recipient): destroy the current contract, sending its funds to the given address

  • suicide(address recipient): alias for selfdestruct

  • .balance: uint256: balance of the Address in Wei

  • .send(uint256 amount) returns (bool): send given amount of Wei to Address, returns false on failure

  • .transfer(uint256 amount): send given amount of Wei to Address, throws on failure.

Scope Variables

  • this: current contract’s type - the current contract, explicitly convertable to address

  • super: the contract one level higher in the inheritance hierarchy

Function Visibility Specifier

  • public: visible externally and internally(creates accessor function for storage/state variables)

  • private: only visible in the current contract

  • external: only visible externally(only for functions) - i.e. can only be message-called)

  • internal: only visible internally

Modifiers

  • pure: for function - disallows modification or access of state - this is not enforced yet

  • view: for function - disallows modifiction of state - this is not enforced yet

  • payable: for function - allows them to receive Ether together with a call

  • constant: for state variable - disallow assignment(except initialization), does not occupy storage slot

  • contant: for function - same as view

  • anonymous: for events - does not store event signature as topic

  • indexed: for event parameters - store the parameter as topic